• Sabit Man Buttang Rai/Bhutan
    (2nd Updated: 6/15/2021. 1st Updated: 6/11/2021)

An Information and Knowledge to all KIRATS and NON KIRATS of THE WHOLE WORLD:


Whether you call it a science fiction or a myth but all human beings are seeing and experiencing in everyday life.

What is Nature?

Nature in broad sense, it is the natural, physical, material world or universe. It is the phenomena of physical material world in relation to fire, air, water, plants, animals and humanity.

Kirats are part of humanity and humanity is part of Nature. Kirats worship Sun, Moon, Earth, Planets, Sky, big river, lake, ocean etc. whatever big physical material in the universe are revered as God and Goddess. Thus, Kirats are called Nature worshippers. The reasons for worshipping nature objects are unfolded below.

A Kirat Myth passed on word of mouth from generation to generation in Kirat society is narrated below:


“GOD” is believed to be Supreme Being and the Creator. Believed to be Perfect, Powerful, Goodness, Intellect and Highest Wisdom. Therefore, people respect and worship the “GOD”.

“NINAMMA” is name of the GOD of Kirat Rai. “PARUHANG” is the incarnation of THE GOD NINAMMA on the Earth in human form. Actually in Bantawa Rai language, NINAMMA means “Universe or Sky” and revered as The GOD. Kirat Rai believe that the “Universe or Sky” is created by the God NINAMMA and named the creation as NINAMMA. So Paruhang is referred to as “Sky God” or “Universe God” by Kirat Rai, as Paruhang is the incarnation of God Ninamma (Universe).

“SENMIMA or SUMNIMA or SUMDIMA” is the “Dream Girl” of THE GOD PARUHANG. Sumnima is referred to as Mother Earth Goddess called (HENKHAMA) in Bantawa Rai language. Since the God Paruhang created Sumnima from the Earth, Kirat Rai revered as “Mother Earth Goddess”. Thus, the Earth is popularly known as the “MOTHER EARTH GODDESS” in the world.

According to Kirat Mythology, there is no one greater than the GOD and there are no things greater than the UNIVERSE. In Bantawa Rai language, Universe is called Ninamma which is the name of Kirat GOD. Therefore, UNIVERSE is the GOD of Kirat Rai. {UNIVERSE = NINAMMA = GOD}.


Paruhang is the incarnation of The God Ninama on the Earth. During existence of Paruhang on the Earth, there were 3/4 water body and 1/4 land and mostly covered by forest. Paruhang roamed the whole world but could not find any living creature. Paruhang did not find any companion and felt very lonely on the Earth. Paruhang roamed all plain lands, jungle, valleys, rivers, seas and oceans to find a companion but could not find a single creature on the Earth. Finally Paruhang decided to roam high mountains ranges on the Earth. Due to roaming in search of a companion, Paruhang was exhausted and fell asleep on mountain regions thinking about a companion. So while sleeping due to exhaustion, he dreamt a beautiful lady like an angel in his dream. He talked and played with her in the dream and felt so happy in the dreamland. When he woke up from the deep sleep, the beautiful lady like angel of his dream vanished. But the picture of the dream girl remained in his mind when awake. Since he needed a companion very badly, Paruhang created a lady exactly which he saw in his dream with his devine power from the Earth (Henkhama). Paruhang’s creation was named SENMIMA. Actually the name Senmima was derived from two words of Bantawa Rai language called SENMI and MAMA. In Bantawa Rai language “SENMI” means Dream and “MAMA” means Mother. Later the name SENMIMA was known as SUMNIMA; like Kasthamandap changed into Kathmandu. Actually, “SENMIMA or SUMNIMA” also known as SUMDIMA ( Sum means three and Dima means Grandmother) means Dream Girl of the God Paruhang who is incarnation of the GOD NINAMMA, (Universe). Since Paruhang created Sumnima from the Earth, Kirats revered as “MOTHER EARTH GODDESS” and it is widely known as “MOTHER EARTH or MOTHER NATURE”.

After creation of Sumnima by Paruhang on the Earth, they lived together happily. They created mankind, animals, birds and reptiles on the Earth. This is how life started on the Earth.

In Kirat Mythology, Senmima/Sumnima/Sumdima is one and the same, considered as the wife of the God Paruhang. The name Senmima/Sumnima/Sumdima is of Nepali Kirat Origin. In Hindu religion, Parvati is wife of Lord Shivaji, also consider God Paruhang of Kirat as Lord Shivaji and Sumnima of Kirat as Parvati. From Hindu religion point of view, Paruhang is referred to as Shivaji and Sumnima is referred to as Parvati.


KIRATS believe in a couple of mythologies about origin of human beings. Let me highlight on one mythology of Kirat Rai, the origin and end of humankind’s life.

You may have seen three stones placed at hearths of Kirat Rai homes. Even now also many Kirats or Kirawas worship three hearthstones (Chula) of their homes. The three hearthstones are called “Suptulung”, “Taralung” and “Sakhalung.” Also some Kirawas call it “Papalung,” “Mamalung” and “Ramilung.” Some other Kirawa clan call Dewalung, Tayalung and Ruthulung. The Hearthstone “Chula” worshipping places of Kirat Rai homes are known as “SAMKHA” or “DABBAY” or “SUPTULUNG” in Kirat Bantawa Rai language. Hearthstone of Kirat Rai are refer to as Mandir or Temple.

In Kirat Rai mythology, once up on a time, in this Universe, Paruhang (Sky God) and (Senmima or Sumnima or Sumdima) (Mother Earth Goddess) originated with their devine power. There was no life on Mother Earth (Henkhama) other than Paruhang (Ninamma) and Sumnima (Henkhama). Paruhang and Sumnima were living together on Earth (Henkhama). One day Sumnima & Paruhang happened to make a statue from the soil and ash of their fire hearthstone or “Chula”. Sumnima collected soil and ash from their fire Hearth “Chula” and Paruhang brought water from spring in his bottle gourd, which in Nepali is called “Chindo” and in Kirawa it is known as “Wabuk or Salenwa”. Both of them mixed the ash and water together and made mud. Out of this mud, they made a first statue seeing Paruhang’s shadow having a head with eyes, ears, nose, mouth, body and legs. They kept the statue in the sunlight and air to dry. That very statue had the shape of present mankind but it was not able to move and speak. What they did thereafter was that Paruhang placing his mouth at the statue’s mouth, gave breath and spoke the word “OM” at the mouth and ear of the statue. Because of devine power of Paruhang, the very statue could move and speak. Paruhang and Sumdima were very happy with their creation but found their creation was feeling lonely. They decided to make another similar statue out of mud, made from soil, ash and water for companion. This time they made the statue seeing Sumnima’s shadow. They kept the statue in sunlight and air to dry. This time, Sumnima gently gave breath to second statue and spoke at its mouth and ear. Due to devine power of Sumnima, the second statue also came to life. Thereafter, these two statues which came to life had each other’s company. The statue which Paruhang gave breath to and spoke at its ears became male and the other statue that Sumnima gave breath to became female and they were named KIRAT and NAYUMA (Marima) respectively. They lived together and later many progenies came from them. Since Paruhang and Sumnima created Kirat and Nayuma (Marima), Kirawas of ancient time regarded Kirat and Nayuma as children of Sumnima and Paruhang. And Kirawas of nowadays believe that Kirat and Nayuma are their primordial ancestors and consider themselves as descendants of Paruhang and Sumnima. That is why Kirawas call themselves as “ANKAN CHI NA SUMNIMA PARUHANG O CHA-CHI AY”, which means “WE ARE CHILDREN OF SUMNIMA & PARUHANG” in Bantawa Rai language. Some Kirawas call themselves as “ANKAN CHI NA SUMNIMA PARUHANG O BUNGWAKHA O BUNGWA AY”, it means “WE ARE FLOWERS OF SUMNIMA PARUHANG’s” FLOWER GARDEN in Bantawa Rai language. The descendants of Kirat and Nayuma are called KIRAT these days.

According to a Kirat myth, mankind came from the ash of Paruhang and Sumnima’s hearthstone. Paruhang and Sumnima are creator of Kirat and Nayuma on this Earth and worshipped Paruhang and Sumnima as God & Goddess at their hearthstones (Chula). Kirawas consider Kirat and Nayuma as their primordial ancestors. Since Kirat and Nayuma (Marima) were created by God Paruhang and Goddess Sumnima, the descendants of Kirat and Nayuma give high reverence to their primordial ancestors and worship them at their Fire place stones (Chula). This is how worshipping of Paruhang and Sumnima as God and Goddess, worshipping of ancesters and hearthstones originated. The practice of worshipping Paruhang Sumnima, ancesters and Chula are still prevalent in many Kirawa societies because these are the main roots of mankind origin according to Kirat mythology. The Hearthstone “Chula” worshipping places of Kirat Rai homes are known as “SAMKHA”/”DABBAY”/ “SUPTULUNG” in Kirat Bantawa Rai language. Hearthstone of Kirat Rai are referred to as MANDIR or TEMPLE.

Paruhang and Sumnima created mankind by using “Bottle Gourd”; in Bantawa Rai language it is called ” Waboop” or “Solonwa”. Mangpas (Rai Priests) call “Aptchimi doptchimi” for “Waboop”. Paruhang and Sumnima used “Wabook” for carrying water and creating mankind. Thus, the use of Waboop during performance of rituals in Kirawa society is still prevalent.

Sumnima and Paruhang Created 84 different creatures from mud statues:

After creation of two humans on the Earth, Paruhang and Sumnima created 84 numbers of animals, birds, reptiles etc. from mud statues out of ash, soil mixing with water and made them alive with their devine power. So according to Kirat belief, you will have to go through 84 times of birth and death life cycles ie. (Chaurasi Juni) of animals, birds, reptiles and finally reborn as humankind, after doing good deed or “Karma”.

There is also a belief that rebirth to mankind will depend upon your deed or “KARMA” ie. if you have done good deed which means no sin, when you had human life, you will be reborn in human life after death. It is believed that if you have not committed any sin, your soul will reach or go to HEAVEN/NIRVANA ie. PARUHANG or NINAMMA after death. If you have done bad deeds during human life, you will have to go through 84 times of birth, death and rebirth of various life cycles of animals, birds and reptiles, (Chaurasi Juni) then only you will be reborn as human being. Rebirth to human being depend upon your good deeds or “KARMA” of your past life.

According to Kirat belief, killing of living beings are sin. But Kirat Rai still kill animals for food purpose, because it is believed that animals were created by Sumnima Paruhang for food chain purposes. So in order to avoid sin, many Kirawas depend on food grains, vegetable and animal meat killed by others.

According to Kirat Rai mythology, Paruhang and Sumnima are creator of human beings, animals and creatures. Kirat Myth mentions that human body is made of five things ie. soil, water, air, heat and light. There are so many people of various races and tribes besides Kirat on the Earth. According to Kirat Myth, all people on the Mother Earth are descendants of Paruhang Sumnima, which means origin is one and the same. It is just like a single big tree trunk with many branches and leaves or like a big stem of flower with many branches, leaves and flowers. This is how Kirat myth & “MUNDUM” or “MUNDHUM” explains about Origin of humankind on the earth and the reason for worshipping of three hearthstones (CHULA) by Kirawas.

* {Kirat Myth says that mankind is created by Sumnima and Paruhang from soil, water, air, sunlight and heat on the Mother Earth. People may laugh after reading this Kirat Myth but it is the reality of life. You are seeing it and experiencing in everyday life, but not realizing who is your real GOAD & GUIDE, what you are made out of and from where you are Originated. People with awakened mind can understand and realize. Please have introspection and retrospection on Kirat Myth, you will realize yourself and become an enlightened soul. It is better even if you realize it late than never. Otherwise you will be burden and destroy the Mother Nature with your ignorance.

You know great Religious Gurus & Famous Political Leaders were born on this Mother Earth and died on the Earth. Famous Political Leaders made some countries big and some small. Similarly some Great Religious Gurus made some religions big and some small, but did not have complete understanding of The Mother Earth (Henkhama) known as SUMNIMA who is the Goddess of Kirats.}


  1. Oxygen……………O………………
  2. Carbon…………….C
  3. Hydrogen…………H
  4. Nitrogen………….N. {99%}
  5. Calcium…………..Ca
  6. Phosphorus……..P………………..
  7. Potassium……….K
  8. Sulfur………………S
  9. Sodium……………Na. {0.85%}
  10. Chlorine………….Cl
  11. Magnesium…….Mg……………….
  12. Others……………………… {0.15%}

It has been proven by scientists that almost 99% of the mass of the Human Body is made up of six elements: Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, and Phosphorus. Only about 0.85% is composed of another five elements: Potassium, Solphur, Sodium, Chlorine and Magnesium. All 11 elements and other 0.15% elements are necessary for life.

(Source: Google-Wikipedia).

All elements that are found in human body are available in the atmosphere and in the Mother Earth’s crust.

Elements available in the Mother Earth’s crust are approximately: oxygen 46%, silicon 28%, aluminum 8.3%, iron 5.6%, calcium 4.2%, sodium 2.5%, magnesium 2.4%, potassium 2.0% and titanium 0.61%. Other elements occur at less than 0.15%.

(Source: Google-Wikipedia).

The atmosphere of the Mother Earth is composed of about 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, and 0.93% Argon. The remainder 0.1% such trace gases as water vapour, carbon dioxide, and ozone. All of this trace gases have important effects on Earth’s climate.}

(Source: Google-Encyclopedia)

The Earth and atmosphere are part of Nature. All elements that are found in human bodies are available in the atmosphere and in the Earth’s crust. As these elements found in the Earth and atmosphere make human bodies and give life on the Earth, Kirats regard the Earth as Mother Earth Goddess. Since the Earth and atmosphere are part of Nature and give life, Kirats regard as Mother Nature and worship them as the Mother Nature Goddess. As Kirats worship nature objects as the God and Goddess that is why Kirats are called Nature Worshippers.

(The writer is Ex-Chief Internal Auditor, Ministry of Information and Communication. Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu. Ex-Chief Internal Auditor, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu. Ex-Chief Internal Auditor, Ministry of Health, Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu. Ex-Chief Internal Auditor, Ministry of Agriculture and Forest, Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu.- Editor)

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